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| Last Updated:: 24/02/2017

Agriculture

 AGRICULTURE

With the growth of Indian economy the share of Agriculture in GDP has declined over the years and even today productivity of some agricultural products is lower compared to countries like USA & China. The growth in Indian agricultural sector has had its moments of glory, nonetheless. Green Revolution (Pioneering work by agriculture scientists and the efforts of farmers, popularly known as the “Green Revolution', had helped achieve a breakthrough in the agriculture sector in the 1960) has been the major success story of free India. The nation that was frequently plagued by famines and chronic food shortage before green revolution, today faces surplus. From a food grain production around 55 million tons at the time of independence, we now boost of production of about 260 million tons of food grain. Unlike developed nations, agriculture still remains the backbone of our country.
 

 

 Tables 8.1 - PATTERN OF LAND UTILISATION - All India & State Wise 

Increasing demand for industrialization, urbanization, housing and infrastructure is forcing conversion of agricultural land to non –agricultural uses; the scope for expansion of the area available for cultivation is limited. This is reflected in decrease in net sown area, on the whole, from 143 million hectares in 1990-91 to 139.9 million hectares in 2012-13. However, the gross cropped area has gone up by 6 million hectare, from 186 to 194 million hectare during the same period due to increase in the cropping intensity from 130 to 139 per cent.

 

 

 Table 8.1- PATTERN OF LAND UTILISATION - All INDIA
  Source: http://mospi.nic.in/Mospi_New/upload/SYB2016/ch8.html

 

Table 8.1- PATTERN OF LAND UTILISATION - State wise

 Source: http://mospi.nic.in/Mospi_New/upload/SYB2016/ch8.html

 

 

 

Table 8.2-AREA UNDER PRINCIPAL CROPS

During the 11th Plan, the area under jowar, bajra, small millets, ground nuts, rapeseed and mustard, sunflower and mesta has witnessed a negative growth while the yields of all the major crops have recorded positive growth. Impressive rates of growth (more than 4 percent per annum) in production were observed in the case of wheat, bajra, maize, coarse cereals, gram, tur, total pulses, groundnut, sesamum, soyabean, total oilseeds and cotton. The increases in production in the case of wheat, bajra, maize, groundnut and total oilseeds can mainly be attributed to increase in yields, whereas the growth in production in the case of gram, tur, total pulses, soyabean and cotton was driven by a combination of both expansion in area and increase in productivity/yield. A perusal of the rates of growth in yield reveals that most of the crops have recorded higher growth during the 11th Plan than that during the 10th Plan. However, sugarcane, and rapeseed & mustard, soybean and cotton recorded lower rates of growth in yield during the 11th plan than that of the 10th Plan. Growth in yields of sugarcane and rapeseed & mustard suggest that their yields seem to have attained the plateau and need renewed research to boost their productivity levels.

 

Table 8.2- AREA UNDER PRINCIPAL CROPS

Source: http://mospi.nic.in/Mospi_New/upload/SYB2016/ch8.html

 

Table 8.3 -PRODUCTION OF PRINCIPAL CROPS

 Year 2013-14 was an exceptionally good year for agriculture in India as several crops witnessed record production. The production in the year thereafter, i.e. 2014-15, declined across most crops (except for some crops like sugarcane). As per Final Estimates for 2013-14, total production of rice in the country was estimated at 106.6 million tonnes which is a new record. Production of wheat estimated at record 95.8 million tonnes was also higher than ever before. The production of Coarse Cereals was estimated at 43.3 million tonnes which was also higher than the production during 2012-13. Total food grains production estimated at 265 million tonnes is also a record. It is higher by about 8 million tonnes than the production during the year before . Total production of pulses and oilseeds estimated at record levels of 19.25 million tonnes and 32.7 million tonnes respectively are higher by 0.9 million tonnes and 1.8 million tonnes than their production levels during 2012-13. Production of sugarcane during 2013-14 estimated at 352 million tonnes is higher by about 11 million tonnes than its production of 341 million tonnes during 2012-13. Production of cotton estimated at 35.9 million bales (of 170 kg each) is also higher by about 1.7 million bales than its production of 34.2 million bales during 2012-13.

 

Table 8.3- PRODUCTION OF PRINCIPAL CROPS   
   Source:http://mospi.nic.in/Mospi_New/upload/SYB2016/ch8.html

 

 

 

 

Table 8.4 - AVERAGE YIELD OF PRINCIPAL CROPS

Average yields per hectare of principal crops have been obtained by dividing the total production by the corresponding total area under each crop. All India and State average yield per hectare has generally been calculated on the basis of area and production figures rounded up to hundreds . In the case of tea, rubber and minor crops, average yield has been calculated on the basis of area

 

 
and production figures upto the unit place. In the case of coffee, yields per hectare relate to sowing or plucked area and in the case of rubber to tapped area.

 

 

Table 8.4- AVERAGE YIELD OF PRINCIPAL CROPS

Source: http://mospi.nic.in/Mospi_New/upload/SYB2016/ch8.html

 

  

 


 

TABLE 8.5 ALL INDIA INDEX NUMBERS OF AREA OF PRINCIPAL CROPS

As per fourth advance estimate , in 2014-15 production of food grains is expected to decline by about 4.7 % compared to the previous year as India is likely to produce about 253 million tons of food grains , a decrease of more than 12 million tons in a year.



Table 8.5- All INDIA INDEX NUMBERS OF AREA OF PRINCIPAL CROPS

Source: http://mospi.nic.in/Mospi_New/upload/SYB2016/ch8.html



 

Table 8.6 COST ESTIMATE OF SOME PRINCIPAL CROPS IN FIVE

The declining land-base for agricultural operations, diminishing water tables, shortage of farm-labour, increasing costs of inputs and uncertainties associated with prices/realisation which impact the viability of farming are some of the formidable challenges the agriculture sector faces. Resource use efficiency to improve factor productivity and ensuring natural resources sustainability are necessary to reconcile the conflicting demands of farmers and consumer. While the country is presently self sufficient in cereals, it meets its domestic requirements for pulses and edible oils through imports. The working group for the 12th Five Year Plan has also projected that the deficit between the domestic demand and supply in the cases of pulses and edible oils would continue even by the end of the 12th Plan. Despite the various efforts being made, there is no technological breakthrough in pulses, the yields are still hovering around 600-800 Kg per hectare. Pulses continue to be grown by small and marginal farmers on marginal lands under rain fed conditions. Even though substantial increases have been made in the MSP, due to weak procurement/price support mechanism, farmers’ response in terms of increase in acreage under pulses is lukewarm. Nearly half of our domestic requirement of edible oils is met through imports. Developing oil palm, which have high oil contents, on large track of lands suitable for its cultivation, can bridge the gap between demand and supply of edible oils. 

 

Table 8.6- COST ESTIMATE OF SOME PRINCIPAL CROPS IN FIVE